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发布于:2019-6-17 19:33:47  访问:26 次 回复:0 篇
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(HNS2) had a longterm nonprogressive HIV-1 infection for {more|much more
(HNS2) had a longterm nonprogressive HIV-1 infection for a lot more than 10 years.12 Relatively cross-reactive antibodies that neutralize primary isolates happen to be described in sera from other donors with long-term nonprogressive HIV-1 infections.13 The EnvR2, expressed from one of many env genes cloned from patient HNS2, is often neutralized by sera from individuals infected with HIV-1 from clades A, B, C, D, and F, too as circulating recombinant types (CRF).12 Virions pseudotyped with all the EnvR2 can mediate CD4independent infection. Also, these viruses are sensitive to neutralization by a panel of monoclonal antibodies that recognizes conformation epitopes in envelope.14 A rare mutation discovered inside the crown with the V3 loop, a proline (P) and methionine (M) (nucleotide position 313/314), seems responsible for the uncommon neutralization sensitivity phenotype PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272289 and the capacity of this envelope to mediate CD4-independent infection.14 Lately, Dong et al.15 expressed the EnvR2 from a Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) replicon and elicited higher titer neutralizing antibodies in mice and rabbits following immunization. These properties are constant with all the possibility that the EnvR2 expresses one particular or more neutralization epitopes that happen to be accountable for induction of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies within the donor of HNS2. DNA vaccination (genetic vaccination) induces protective immunity against many different pathogens.16?9 These genetic vaccines consist of eukaryotic expression plasmids which can be inoculated into target cells within the skin, muscle, or mucosal surfaces of a host and are translated into proteins.7,20 DNA vaccination successfully induces both humoral and cellular immune responses to immunogens PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19502531 from diverse infectious agents.5,17?9,21?three The use of a variety of HIV envelope immunogens has failed to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing a lot more than a fraction of major isolates.five,7 In contrast to most immunogens, many DNA immunizations are needed to elicit even modest titers of neutralizing antibody for the HIV envelope glycoprotein.17,18,22,24?0 On the other hand, the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies seems to be a essential element of any HIV vaccine.20,31 1 strategy sophisticated in our laboratory to improve the immunogenicity to HIV-1 Env would be the use from the complement protein, C3d, as a molecular adjuvant. Conjugation of multiple copies of C3d to an antigen enhances the immunogenicity of low or nonimmunogenic antigens.27, 32 C3d, when fused to an antigen, but not when coinoculated, enhances the total IgG titer against the conjugated protein.27,32 Antibodies directed against (1) the hemagglutinin of influenza or measles virus,22,33,34 (two) the merozoite surface antigen, MSP1.19, of Plasmodium yoelii,35 (three) the capsular polysaccharide of serotype 14 Streptococcus pneumonia,36,37 (4) the hepatatis B surface antigen (L. Wang, individual communication) were elevated between 1 and 3 logs following immunization with DNA-expressing C3d-conjugated antigens. The addition of 3 copies of murine or human C3d to soluble types of HIV-1 envelope accelerated both the onset and also the avidity maturation of antibody in vaccinated mice and 2-BenzoxazolonePurity & Documentation enhanced neutralizing antibody titers in comparison with mice vaccinated with antigen alone.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. Author manuscript; readily available in PMC 2006 August 21.YOUNG et al.Page24,26,29,30 In addition, titers of neutralizing antibodies to inf.
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